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  1. #1

    Default how to increase the hard disk space?

    dear all
    i have installed a hyper - v role and install the domain controller at one virtual machine but the problem now is that i am needing to increase the hard disk space of the machine
    Kind regards


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  6. #2

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    Before using the ability to expand the VHD hard disk you must take the following issues into consideration:

    • You must first completely shut down the virtual machine. You cannot expand a virtual hard disk that is associated with a running or saved stated virtual machine.
    • If you expand a virtual hard disk that is associated with a virtual machine that has snapshots, these snapshots will be invalidated. If you need the snapshots, you'd better make sure you plan ahead of time, and/or create new snapshots after performing the expansion of the hard disk.
    • Make sure no snapshots are associated with this VM.

    • After expanding the virtual hard disk there will be an empty space at the end of the virtual hard disk, just like not using the entire disk when you've originally created partitions in it. You will either need to create a new partition to use the new space, or expand an existing partition into the new space.

    Note: Expanding or extending partitions on Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 is easier than on Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP, and is performed by using either the Disk Management snap-in from the Computer Management tool, or by using the DISKPART command. Please read my How to Extend a Disk Partition in Windows Vista and Server 2008 article for more information.
    Last edited by Mohamed Fouad; 01-05-2010 at 03:46 PM.

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    Thanks Mohamed.
    Also read this
    Virtual Hard Disk Types

    There are two basic types of VHDs provided in Hyper-V:

    • Fixed-size disks
    • Dynamically expanding disks

    A fixed-size VHD is one for which data blocks are pre-allocated on a physical disk based on the maximum VHD size defined at the time of creation. For example, if you create a 100 GB fixed-size virtual hard disk, Hyper-V will allocate all 100 GB of data block storage in addition to the overhead required for the VHD disk headers and footers when it creates the new VHD.
    In contrast, a dynamically expanding VHD is one for which the initial virtual hard disk contains no data blocks. Instead space is dynamically allocated as data is written to the VHD, up to the maximum size specified when the virtual hard disk was created. For example, a 10-GB dynamically expanding disk contains only VHD headers initially and requires less than 2 MB of physical storage space. As new data is written by the virtual machine to the dynamically expanding VHD, additional physical data blocks are allocated in 2-MB increments to the VHD file, up to a maximum of 10 GB.
    In order to provide maximum flexibility, Hyper-V allows you to convert a fixed-size disk to a dynamically expanding disk, and vice-versa. You can also increase the size of both types of VHD files, but the VHDs must be taken offline before you can do this. In addition, Hyper-V allows you to compact a dynamically expanding disk and free up physical disk space by eliminating empty data blocks within a VHD file.
    Differencing Disks

    A differencing disk is a special type of dynamically expanding VHD file that is related to a “parent” virtual hard disk file as an overlay. For example, if a support engineer needs to troubleshoot operating system issues that involve different update and patch configurations, she can create a virtual machine using a fixed-size or dynamically expanding VHD (the parent VHD) and load a baseline configuration of the operating system in it. In order to create a distinct operating system configuration, she can create a new virtual machine, attach a differencing disk (the child VHD) to it that is related to the parent VHD, and modify the operating system as needed by loading new updates or patches. When the new virtual machine issues a write operation, an internal data structure in the child VHD (differencing disk) is updated to reflect changes that supersede data in the parent VHD, and the actual data is written only to the child VHD. In the case of a read operation, the same internal data structure in the child VHD is checked to determine whether to read data from the child VHD or parent VHD. Any new or changed data is read from the child VHD while unchanged data is always read from the parent VHD.
    Differencing disks can be used to create very simple or very complex parent-child hierarchies. A multilevel differencing disk hierarchy is commonly referred to as a chain of differencing disks, reflecting that a child differencing disk can have a parent disk that is also a differencing disk. The chain can consist of several levels, but at the root of the hierarchy, there is always either a standard dynamically expanding or fixed-size VHD. This is important since data changes saved in a differencing disk are simply represented as modified blocks in relation to the parent disk. Therefore, a differencing disk is never used independently, but in conjunction with all disks in its hierarchy.
    If you examine a Hyper-V host file system, you will see that each parent and child VHD is stored as an individual file. However, the virtual machine sees only a single disk, independent of how many levels of differencing disks are actually associated with the attached VHD.
    Automatic Differencing Disks

    Automatic differencing disks are similar to differencing disks. Like a differencing disk, an automatic differencing disk is used to isolate virtual machine data changes from a parent VHD. However, automatic differencing disks are used strictly to support Hyper-V virtual machine snapshots where data changes need to be quickly discarded or a rapid rollback to the base virtual machine state is required.
    Unlike fixed-size, dynamically expanding, and differencing disk, which cannot be distinguished from each other by visual inspection of the filename extension (they all use .vhd), an automatic differencing disk is easily identified by a .avhd filename extension. Furthermore, automatic differencing disks are stored in a subdirectory of the virtual machine folder named Snapshots, by default.
    One major distinction between differencing disks and automatic differencing disks is in the configuration process. A differencing disk is created at an individual virtual hard disk level and is usually associated with the creation of a new virtual machine. In contrast, an automatic differencing disk is created by Hyper-V when a virtual machine snapshot is taken. In addition, an automatic differencing disk is created for every virtual hard disk associated with the virtual machine. In other words, you do not have the ability to individually choose the virtual hard disks for which automatic differencing disks are generated.
    Pass-through Disks

    Besides VHDs, Hyper-V supports pass-through disks, which allow virtual machines to access a physical disk mapped to the Hyper-V host, but that does not have a volume configured on it. Pass-through disks can be physically connected to the Hyper-V host or through a LUN on a SAN. An advantage of pass-through disks is that they are not subject to the 2 TB size limit that is imposed on virtual hard disks. In terms of limitations, pass-through disks do not support dynamically expanding virtual hard disks, differencing disks, or virtual machine snapshots. To ensure that a virtual machine has exclusive access to the physical disk, it must be configured offline on the Hyper-V host.
    If you plan to use a pass-through disk to boot a virtual machine guest operating system, the virtual machine configuration file must also be stored on a different storage location. In contrast to virtual hard disks that are only files stored on physical disks, the entire pass-through disk is dedicated to the virtual machine guest operating system. Additionally, if you want to use a pass-through disk to boot a virtual machine guest operating system, it must be attached to a virtual IDE controller. In Hyper-V, the virtual SCSI controller is implemented as a synthetic device whose driver is loaded only after the virtual machine boot phase. Conversely, a pass-through disk that contains only application or data files can be connected to either a virtual IDE controller or virtual SCSI controller.
    Conclusion

    In this article, you learned that virtual machine disks can be configured as fixed-size, dynamically expanding, or differencing disks. You also learned that differencing disks and automatic differencing disks are two special types of dynamically expanding VHDs, and that automatic differencing disks are used exclusively to support virtual machine snapshots. In addition, you learned about the option to use a pass-through disk with a virtual machine, which allows you to exceed the 2 TB VHD size limit.

    Modifying Existing Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disks,"You will use expand in your case".

    Once a Hyper-V virtual hard disk has been created, it can be modified in a variety of ways using the Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard. The wizard is loaded by launching the Hyper-V Manager wizard and clicking on the Edit Hard Disks... link in the Actions panel. If the optional welcome screen appears, click Next to proceed to the Locate Virtual Hard Disk screen. On this screen, specify the full path to the virtual disk .vhd file using the Browse button to navigate to the correct file. With the correct location specified, proceed once again with the Next button which will display the Choose Action screen. The options provided depend on the type of the specified virtual disk. The following figure illustrates the options provided for a dynamic expandable disk:



    There are a total of five actions that can be performed on virtual hard disks as outlined in the following table:
    Option
    Description
    Compact Available on dynamically expanding and differencing virtual hard disks, this option shrinks the size of the selected .vhd image file by removing unused space left behind after data is deleted from the disk. This option cannot reduce the size of non-NTFS formatted disks unless the unused space is previously filled with zeros.
    Convert Converts virtual hard disks to and from fixed and dynamic expandable types. Expand Increases the size of dynamic expandable and fixed virtual hard disks. Merge Merges the contents of the selected differencing virtual hard disk into the corresponding parent virtual hard disk. Alternatively, the contents of both the parent and child virtual hard disks may be merged into a new virtual hard disk, thereby leaving the original parent disk image unchanged.
    Reconnect Differencing disks must be associated with a parent virtual hard disk. This option allows a differencing virtual hard disk to be reconnected with a parent disk. Getting Information about a Hyper-V Virtual Hard Disk

    Information about an existing Hyper-V virtual hard disk, such as the current size, maximum size, image file location and disk type, can be obtained at any time using the Hyper-V Manager. To achieve this, right click on the virtual machine to which the disk is assigned from the list of virtual machines displayed by Hyper-V Manager and click on the Settings... option of the resulting menu. In the Settings dialog, select the required hard drive from the Hardware panel which runs down the left hand side of the dialog. This will update the main panel to reflect the selected disk drive. In the Media section of this panel, click on the Inspect button to invoke the Virtual Hard Disk Properties dialog as illustrated below:

    Last edited by Mohamed Fouad; 01-05-2010 at 03:53 PM.

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