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    Exclamation Nuclear engineering

    Nuclear engineering is the application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. It includes, but is not limited to, the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components— specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field may also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related (e.g., waste disposal) technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.
    Contents

    [hide]


    [edit] Typical training


    The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
    Please improve this article or discuss the issue on the talk page.
    The following is the typical coursework included in most U.S. nuclear engineering degree programs.

    [edit] College preparation

    As with any engineering discipline, college preparation should include mathematics training through the beginnings of calculus, as well as introductory courses in physics and chemistry.

    [edit] Undergraduate coursework

    Undergraduate coursework should begin with a foundation in mechanics and dynamics of partmotion, thermodynamics, introductory computer programming, college level physics and chemistry, and a rigorous training in mathematics through differential equations.
    Midway through undergraduate training a nuclear engineer must choose a specialization within his or her field that he or she will further study. Further coursework in a nuclear engineering program includes but is not limited to fluid mechanics, reactor physics, quantum mechanics, thermal hydraulics, linear circuits, radiation effects, and neutron transport.
    Specialization in fission includes the study of nuclear reactors, fission systems, and nuclear power plants, the primary teachings deal with neutronics and thermal-hydraulics for nuclear generated electricity. A firm foundation in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics in addition to hydrodynamics is a must.
    Specialization in nuclear fusion includes electrodynamics and plasmas. This area is very much research oriented and training often terminates with a graduate level degree.
    Specialization in nuclear medicine includes courses dealing with doses and absorption of radiation in bodily tissues. Those who get competency in this area usually move into the medical field. Many nuclear engineers in this specialization go on to become board licensed medical physicists or go to medical school and become a radiation oncologist. Research is also a common choice for graduates.

    [edit] Naval Nuclear Power School

    The US Navy runs a program called Naval Nuclear Power School to train both officers and enlisted sailors for nuclear plant operation. While some officers have undergraduate backgrounds in nuclear engineering, any officers who take the requisite math and science classes are also accepted, whereas most of the enlisted students hold no college degrees at all. Despite this, they are prepared, through a rigorous training program (lasting between 65 weeks for Machinist's Mates and eighteen months for Electronics Technicians and Electrician's Mates), to operate the nuclear and steam plants aboard the navy's submarines and aircraft carriers. This training does not carry a Department of Energy certification, although many sailors choose to work at civilian power plants after their six-year obligations are completed.


    USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine




    USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76)), the ninth and penultimate Nimitz-class supercarrier




    [edit] Professional areas


    [edit] Nuclear fission

    Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a fissionable atom's nucleus into two or more different elements nuclei. An approximate number of ~2.4 neutrons are scattered around per fission. There are two types of nuclear fission. 1-Fast Fission 2-Thermal fission
    Generally, thermal fission is used in commercial reactors, if we disregard the Fast Breeder Type of Nuclear Reactors.
    The United States gets about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power. This is a massive industry and keeping the supply of nuclear engineers plentiful will ensure its stability. Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for government labs. Current research in industry is directed at producing economical, proliferation resistant reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs research the same areas as industry, they also study a myriad of other issues such as: nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, and nuclear weapon design and maintenance. A principal pipeline for trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the Navy Nuclear Power Program.


    Nuclear Powerplant




    B-61 thermonuclear weapon




    [edit] Nuclear fusion and plasma physics

    Research areas in nuclear fusion and plasma physics include high-temperature, radiation-resistant materials, and plasma dynamics. Internationally, research is currently directed at building a prototype tokamak called ITER. The research at ITER will primarily focus on instabilities and diverter design refinement. Researchers in the USA are also building an inertial confinement experiment called the National Ignition Facility or NIF. NIF will be used to refine neutron transport calculations for the US stockpile stewardship initiative.


    NIF (National Ignition Facility) target chamber




    [edit] Nuclear medicine and medical physics

    An important field is nuclear medicine. From x-ray machines to MRI to PET, among many others, nuclear medicine provides most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options.


    X-Ray Image of a male skull




    Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of a head




    PET taken with an ECAT Exact HR+ PET Scanner




    [edit] Nuclear materials and nuclear Fuels

    Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals and semiconductors using ion-beams or particle accelerators.


    Uranium ore, the principal raw material of nuclear fuel




    Nuclear fuel pellets




    A Focused ion beam




    [edit] Radiation measurements and imaging

    Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things.


    A modern Geiger counter




    A neutron detector




    Scintillation detector next to Uraninite




    [edit] Nuclear engineering organizations


    [edit] List of U.S. colleges offering nuclear engineering degrees

    CollegeDepartment (external links)Degrees offeredAir Force Institute of TechnologyEngineering PhysicsMS,PhDKansas State UniversityMechanical and Nuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDGeorgia Institute of TechnologyNuclear and Radiological EngineeringBS,MS,PhDIdaho State UniversityInstitute of Nuclear Science and EngineeringBS,MS,PhDMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyNuclear Science and EngineeringBS,MS,PhDMissouri University of Science and TechnologyNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDNorth Carolina State UniversityNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDOhio State UniversityNuclear EngineeringMS,PhDOregon State UniversityNuclear Engineering and Radiation Health PhysicsBS,MS,PhDPennsylvania State UniversityMechanical and Nuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDPennsylvania State UniversityDistance Learning Program in Nuclear EngineeringMengPurdue UniversityNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteMechanical, Aerospace & Nuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDSouth Carolina State UniversityNuclear EngineeringBSTexas A&M UniversityNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of California, BerkeleyNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of CincinnatiMechanical, Industrial and Nuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of FloridaNuclear and Radiological EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of IdahoNuclear Engineering ProgramMS,PhDUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignNuclear, Plasma and Radiological EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of Maryland, College ParkMaterials and Nuclear EngineeringMS,PhDUniversity of Massachusetts LowellChemical EngineeringBSUniversity of Michigan Ann ArborNuclear Engineering and Radiological SciencesBS,MS,PhDUniversity of Missouri–ColumbiaNuclear Science and Engineering InstituteMS,PhDUniversity of New MexicoChemical and Nuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of Tennessee at KnoxvilleNuclear EngineeringBS,MS,PhDUniversity of South CarolinaNuclear EngineeringME,MS,PhDUniversity of Texas at AustinNuclear and Radiation EngineeringMS,PhDUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonEngineering PhysicsBS,MS,PhDUnited States Naval AcademyNuclear EngineeringBSUnited States Military AcademyNuclear EngineeringBS

    List of universities in Canada offering nuclear engineering degrees

    CollegeDepartment (external links)Degrees offeredUniversity of Ontario Institute of Technology, OshawaNuclear EngineeringB.EngMcMaster University, HamiltonEngineering Nuclear PhysicsB.Eng.Phys., Dipl.Nuc.Tech, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.Royal Military College of Canada, KingstonDepartment of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringM.Sc, M.A.Sc, M.Eng, PhD

    List of colleges in India offering nuclear engineering degrees

    CollegeDepartment (external links)Degrees offeredIndian Institute of Technology, KanpurNuclear Engg and TechnologyM.Tech,PhD

    List of colleges in Pakistan offering nuclear engineering degrees

    CollegeDepartment (external links)Degrees offeredPakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, IslamabadDepartment of Nuclear EngineeringMS,PhD

    See also


    links



    Wikibooks' Wikiversity has more about this subject: Nuclear_Engineering




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    thanks fro share the post.

    من مواضيع revalea75031 :


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